## 量子态与测量

写给了解一些量子力学基本概念的人，理清一些概念。

写给了解一些量子力学基本概念的人，理清一些概念。

If we print a numpy array, which actually use `str()`

, we will find it almost irreversible.

In [5]:

```
l=arange(16).reshape(4,4)
print('l is printed as:\n', l)
```

Use `print()`

will fallback to `str()`

, so `str()`

is not the correct way.

`repr()`

`.tolist()`

Suppose we have two quantum systems $a, b$, with dimension $N_a, N_b$ respectively. Then the Hilbert space of $a+b$ is of dimension $N=N_aN_b$. Suppose we have a density matrix $$\hat\rho=\sum_{i,j}\rho_{ij}\lvert i\rangle \langle j\rvert=\sum_{i,j,k,l}\rho_{ijkl}\lvert i\rangle_a\lvert j\rangle_b \langle k\rvert_a\langle l\rvert_b$$

Then the reduced density matrix of $a$ is defined as $$\hat\rho_a=\mathrm{tr}_b\hat\rho=\sum_i \langle i\rvert_b\hat\rho\lvert i\rangle_b$$

i.e. reduced density matrix problem is equivalent to partial trace problem.

In fact, if we take $\hat\rho$ as a 4-tensor $\rho_{ijkl}$, then the reduced density matrix is $$\rho^{(a)}_{ij}=\delta^{\mu\nu}\rho_{i\mu k\nu}$$ For simple density matrix $\rho=\lvert \psi\rangle \langle \psi\rvert$, the reduced matrix is $$\rho^{(a)}_{ik}=\delta^{jl}\rho_{ijkl}=\delta^{jl}\psi_{ij}\psi^+_{lk}=\sum_i |\langle i_b\lvert \psi\rangle|^2=[\psi\psi^+]_{ik}$$ Here we are taking $\psi$ as an $N_a\times N_b$ matrix.

For general case, if we find decomposition $$\rho=\sum_c \lambda_c\lvert \psi_c\rangle \langle \psi_c\rvert,\quad \sum_c \lambda_c=1$$ then we have $$\rho^{(a)}_{ik}=\left[\sum_c\lambda_c\psi_c\psi^+_c\right]_{ik}$$

The one-way or measurement based quantum computer (MBQC) is a method of quantum computing that first prepares an entangled resource state, usually a cluster state or graph state, then performs single qubit measurements on it. It is "one-way" because the resource state is destroyed by the measurements.

more ...In information theory, the Rényi entropy generalizes the Hartley entropy, the Shannon entropy, the collision entropy and the min entropy. Entropies quantify the diversity, uncertainty, or randomness of a system. The Rényi entropy is named after Alfréd Rényi.

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Fermat’s Principle is

$$\delta s=\delta\int n\dd \ell=0$$

If we choose the path …

more ...E-L is deduced from the Hamilton’s principle

$$\delta S=\delta\int L(\bm q, \dot{\bm q}, t)dt …

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Definition of Classical Possion Bracket:

$$[f, g]=\sum_{i=1, 2,\ldots, n}\frac{\pp(f, g)}{\pp …

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